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European Central Asia

Resources

Latest resources from across the Federation and our partners

Spotlight

A selection of resources from across the Federation

Image of gynaecological medical setting
Resource

Gynaecological and Obstetric Violence - a form of gender-based violence

22 November 2022

Our research and policy paper outlines the systemic and widespread nature of OBGYN violence across the European Union, and makes policy recommendations on how to tackle this form of GBV.
Image of gynaecological medical setting
Resource

| 22 November 2022

Gynaecological and Obstetric Violence - a form of gender-based violence

The widespread and systemic mistreatment and violence against women experienced during childbirth and other reproductive health services has gained international visibility in recent years, following pioneering work in several Latin American countries to recognise and criminalise this form of gender-based violence.   International institutions have also spoken out on the issue. In 2014, gynaecological and obstetric violence was acknowledged by the World Health Organisation, and in 2019 the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women described it as a “serious violation of women’s human rights occurring across all geographical and income-level settings”. In Europe, the parliaments of the Council of Europe and of the European Union have very recently adopted resolutions drawing attention to this phenomenon and calling for national and European measures to tackle it. But to date, no national government has put in place legislation specifically to criminalise gynaecological and obstetric violence. This means that currently, people living in EU Member States have few legal protections or means of redress.  With this in mind, IPPF EN produced this research and policy paper to provide an outline of the systemic and widespread nature of gynaecological and obstetric violence across many countries in Europe, and make recommendations to European and national decision-makers to tackle this form of gender-based violence. On this page you can download our full research and policy paper, as well as a short summary of the report.  Check out IPPF EN's Safe From Harm campaign, highlighting the EU action we support to combat gender-based violence. 

Image of gynaecological medical setting
Resource

| 22 November 2022

Gynaecological and Obstetric Violence - a form of gender-based violence

The widespread and systemic mistreatment and violence against women experienced during childbirth and other reproductive health services has gained international visibility in recent years, following pioneering work in several Latin American countries to recognise and criminalise this form of gender-based violence.   International institutions have also spoken out on the issue. In 2014, gynaecological and obstetric violence was acknowledged by the World Health Organisation, and in 2019 the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women described it as a “serious violation of women’s human rights occurring across all geographical and income-level settings”. In Europe, the parliaments of the Council of Europe and of the European Union have very recently adopted resolutions drawing attention to this phenomenon and calling for national and European measures to tackle it. But to date, no national government has put in place legislation specifically to criminalise gynaecological and obstetric violence. This means that currently, people living in EU Member States have few legal protections or means of redress.  With this in mind, IPPF EN produced this research and policy paper to provide an outline of the systemic and widespread nature of gynaecological and obstetric violence across many countries in Europe, and make recommendations to European and national decision-makers to tackle this form of gender-based violence. On this page you can download our full research and policy paper, as well as a short summary of the report.  Check out IPPF EN's Safe From Harm campaign, highlighting the EU action we support to combat gender-based violence. 

COVID-19 and SRHR
Resource

| 09 July 2021

COVID-19 IPPF innovation and best practice

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on access to and enjoyment of sexual and reproductive health services and rights. While families, couples and individuals have faced intense pressure and hardship as a result of the pandemic, life-saving sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services and supplies, including sexual and gender-based violence services, have become scarce and/or inaccessible. Existing socioeconomic inequalities have been exacerbated, especially as they pertain to girls, women and marginalised groups.  As nationally owned and locally operated health service providers, IPPF Member Associations (MAs) remain committed to their communities and the people within them. In this Case Study series, we share progress, learning and innovation that has occurred within MAs over the course of the pandemic. The case studies cover: telemedicine for abortion in the COVID-19 context, SGBV response in COVID-19, adapting sexuality education in COVID-19 through digitalisation, and leaving no one behind, especially marginalised populations. Take a look at the above Case Studies from Bulgaria, Estonia, Serbia and Ireland. 

COVID-19 and SRHR
Resource

| 09 July 2021

COVID-19 IPPF innovation and best practice

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on access to and enjoyment of sexual and reproductive health services and rights. While families, couples and individuals have faced intense pressure and hardship as a result of the pandemic, life-saving sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services and supplies, including sexual and gender-based violence services, have become scarce and/or inaccessible. Existing socioeconomic inequalities have been exacerbated, especially as they pertain to girls, women and marginalised groups.  As nationally owned and locally operated health service providers, IPPF Member Associations (MAs) remain committed to their communities and the people within them. In this Case Study series, we share progress, learning and innovation that has occurred within MAs over the course of the pandemic. The case studies cover: telemedicine for abortion in the COVID-19 context, SGBV response in COVID-19, adapting sexuality education in COVID-19 through digitalisation, and leaving no one behind, especially marginalised populations. Take a look at the above Case Studies from Bulgaria, Estonia, Serbia and Ireland. 

EU flag
Resource

| 10 May 2021

European Parliament report on the situation of sexual and reproductive health and rights in the EU

This European Parliament Report, authored by MEP Predrag Fred Matić, is the first report specifically dedicated to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) in almost 10 years. Whilst the European Parliament has repeatedly expressed concerns over the lack of full realisation of, and attacks against women’s rights, gender equality and SRHR in various reports, this report will give a high level of political importance to SRHR at EU level. It will send a strong signal to the European Commission, EU Member States, as well as all European citizens, that MEPs are fully committed to protect and promote SRHR in the EU. The report reaffirms SRHR as human rights, intrinsically linked with gender equality and combating gender-based violence; it highlights the remaining challenges in accessing the whole range of SRHR in the EU, challenges compounded by COVID-19 measures; and denounces the backsliding on women’s rights, gender equality and SRHR across Europe and globally. To learn more about why it's important read our briefing developed with the European Parliamentary Forum for Sexual & Reproductive Rights.

EU flag
Resource

| 10 May 2021

European Parliament report on the situation of sexual and reproductive health and rights in the EU

This European Parliament Report, authored by MEP Predrag Fred Matić, is the first report specifically dedicated to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) in almost 10 years. Whilst the European Parliament has repeatedly expressed concerns over the lack of full realisation of, and attacks against women’s rights, gender equality and SRHR in various reports, this report will give a high level of political importance to SRHR at EU level. It will send a strong signal to the European Commission, EU Member States, as well as all European citizens, that MEPs are fully committed to protect and promote SRHR in the EU. The report reaffirms SRHR as human rights, intrinsically linked with gender equality and combating gender-based violence; it highlights the remaining challenges in accessing the whole range of SRHR in the EU, challenges compounded by COVID-19 measures; and denounces the backsliding on women’s rights, gender equality and SRHR across Europe and globally. To learn more about why it's important read our briefing developed with the European Parliamentary Forum for Sexual & Reproductive Rights.

IPPF COVID-19 impact
Resource

| 25 May 2020

A Guide for Europe: Protecting the rights of women and girls in times of the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath

The COVID-19 pandemic is exacerbating gender inequalities and increasing levels of discrimination, insecurity and violence for women across Europe.   A Guide for Europe: Protecting the rights of women and girls in times of the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath provides governments with a roadmap for taking necessary measures to protect the rights of women and girls, who are disproportionately affected by the pandemic, especially those experiencing intersecting and persistent forms of discrimination. European decision-makers must seize this moment to address both the immediate and long-term impact of the pandemic by implementing policies and other steps to eliminate further injustices and inequalities. Any short-, medium- or long-term measures taken to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic must uphold and protect human rights. Civil society organizations are calling for a recovery period that will deliver a shared vision of the future of Europe which is based on a just, feminist, sustainable, democratic and inclusive society. States must refrain from exploiting the pandemic to consolidate authoritarian power, to weaken democracy and the rule of law, or to trample on human rights. States must ensure that their responses include a gender-sensitive and intersectional approach in order to guarantee the rights of all women and girls to live free of discrimination and violence, and to access the essential sexual and reproductive health services they need. This briefing was drafted together with Amnesty International and Women's Link Worldwide.

IPPF COVID-19 impact
Resource

| 25 May 2020

A Guide for Europe: Protecting the rights of women and girls in times of the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath

The COVID-19 pandemic is exacerbating gender inequalities and increasing levels of discrimination, insecurity and violence for women across Europe.   A Guide for Europe: Protecting the rights of women and girls in times of the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath provides governments with a roadmap for taking necessary measures to protect the rights of women and girls, who are disproportionately affected by the pandemic, especially those experiencing intersecting and persistent forms of discrimination. European decision-makers must seize this moment to address both the immediate and long-term impact of the pandemic by implementing policies and other steps to eliminate further injustices and inequalities. Any short-, medium- or long-term measures taken to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic must uphold and protect human rights. Civil society organizations are calling for a recovery period that will deliver a shared vision of the future of Europe which is based on a just, feminist, sustainable, democratic and inclusive society. States must refrain from exploiting the pandemic to consolidate authoritarian power, to weaken democracy and the rule of law, or to trample on human rights. States must ensure that their responses include a gender-sensitive and intersectional approach in order to guarantee the rights of all women and girls to live free of discrimination and violence, and to access the essential sexual and reproductive health services they need. This briefing was drafted together with Amnesty International and Women's Link Worldwide.

COVID-19 and SRHR
Resource

| 13 May 2020

How to address the impact of COVID-19 on women, girls and vulnerable groups and their sexual and reproductive safety

The COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences are having a significant impact on people’s lives. The crisis risks exacerbating already existing inequalities for women, girls, underserved and vulnerable groups. It is notably endangering their sexual and reproductive health and safety. The EU and its Member States must tackle these renewed threats to women’s human rights, sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), gender equality as well as increased risks of domestic and sexual and gender-based violence, in their domestic and global response to the COVID-19 crisis. Read our asks towards the EU and Member States on how to safeguard reproductive freedom in their responses to COVID-19. EU leaders have committed to placing solidarity, resilience and sustainability at the heart of their response to the pandemic. To achieve this, they must protect the health and safety of those at greatest risk. This is our letter to them. 

COVID-19 and SRHR
Resource

| 13 May 2020

How to address the impact of COVID-19 on women, girls and vulnerable groups and their sexual and reproductive safety

The COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences are having a significant impact on people’s lives. The crisis risks exacerbating already existing inequalities for women, girls, underserved and vulnerable groups. It is notably endangering their sexual and reproductive health and safety. The EU and its Member States must tackle these renewed threats to women’s human rights, sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), gender equality as well as increased risks of domestic and sexual and gender-based violence, in their domestic and global response to the COVID-19 crisis. Read our asks towards the EU and Member States on how to safeguard reproductive freedom in their responses to COVID-19. EU leaders have committed to placing solidarity, resilience and sustainability at the heart of their response to the pandemic. To achieve this, they must protect the health and safety of those at greatest risk. This is our letter to them. 

See The Cost
Resource

| 24 June 2019

Make gender equality a reality: Sexual and reproductive rights are key aspects of health and well-being for all people

We can't achieve gender equality without having access to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR).  SRHR underpin the health and well-being of all Europeans, from access to contraceptives and abortion care, sexual health services, relationships and sexuality education, to being protected from violence and coercion, regardless of their gender or sexual orientation. However, access to SRHR varies greatly within and between EU Member States, which is particularly harmful to those in the most vulnerable situations. Furthermore, recent years have seen a rise of coercive movements both within and outside of the EU, with gender equality, women’s rights and reproductive freedom increasingly under attack. This paper lays down the steps to be taken to counter future such attempts that seek to restrict reproductive freedom and gender equality.

See The Cost
Resource

| 24 June 2019

Make gender equality a reality: Sexual and reproductive rights are key aspects of health and well-being for all people

We can't achieve gender equality without having access to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR).  SRHR underpin the health and well-being of all Europeans, from access to contraceptives and abortion care, sexual health services, relationships and sexuality education, to being protected from violence and coercion, regardless of their gender or sexual orientation. However, access to SRHR varies greatly within and between EU Member States, which is particularly harmful to those in the most vulnerable situations. Furthermore, recent years have seen a rise of coercive movements both within and outside of the EU, with gender equality, women’s rights and reproductive freedom increasingly under attack. This paper lays down the steps to be taken to counter future such attempts that seek to restrict reproductive freedom and gender equality.

Image of gynaecological medical setting
Resource

| 22 November 2022

Gynaecological and Obstetric Violence - a form of gender-based violence

The widespread and systemic mistreatment and violence against women experienced during childbirth and other reproductive health services has gained international visibility in recent years, following pioneering work in several Latin American countries to recognise and criminalise this form of gender-based violence.   International institutions have also spoken out on the issue. In 2014, gynaecological and obstetric violence was acknowledged by the World Health Organisation, and in 2019 the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women described it as a “serious violation of women’s human rights occurring across all geographical and income-level settings”. In Europe, the parliaments of the Council of Europe and of the European Union have very recently adopted resolutions drawing attention to this phenomenon and calling for national and European measures to tackle it. But to date, no national government has put in place legislation specifically to criminalise gynaecological and obstetric violence. This means that currently, people living in EU Member States have few legal protections or means of redress.  With this in mind, IPPF EN produced this research and policy paper to provide an outline of the systemic and widespread nature of gynaecological and obstetric violence across many countries in Europe, and make recommendations to European and national decision-makers to tackle this form of gender-based violence. On this page you can download our full research and policy paper, as well as a short summary of the report.  Check out IPPF EN's Safe From Harm campaign, highlighting the EU action we support to combat gender-based violence. 

Image of gynaecological medical setting
Resource

| 22 November 2022

Gynaecological and Obstetric Violence - a form of gender-based violence

The widespread and systemic mistreatment and violence against women experienced during childbirth and other reproductive health services has gained international visibility in recent years, following pioneering work in several Latin American countries to recognise and criminalise this form of gender-based violence.   International institutions have also spoken out on the issue. In 2014, gynaecological and obstetric violence was acknowledged by the World Health Organisation, and in 2019 the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women described it as a “serious violation of women’s human rights occurring across all geographical and income-level settings”. In Europe, the parliaments of the Council of Europe and of the European Union have very recently adopted resolutions drawing attention to this phenomenon and calling for national and European measures to tackle it. But to date, no national government has put in place legislation specifically to criminalise gynaecological and obstetric violence. This means that currently, people living in EU Member States have few legal protections or means of redress.  With this in mind, IPPF EN produced this research and policy paper to provide an outline of the systemic and widespread nature of gynaecological and obstetric violence across many countries in Europe, and make recommendations to European and national decision-makers to tackle this form of gender-based violence. On this page you can download our full research and policy paper, as well as a short summary of the report.  Check out IPPF EN's Safe From Harm campaign, highlighting the EU action we support to combat gender-based violence. 

COVID-19 and SRHR
Resource

| 09 July 2021

COVID-19 IPPF innovation and best practice

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on access to and enjoyment of sexual and reproductive health services and rights. While families, couples and individuals have faced intense pressure and hardship as a result of the pandemic, life-saving sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services and supplies, including sexual and gender-based violence services, have become scarce and/or inaccessible. Existing socioeconomic inequalities have been exacerbated, especially as they pertain to girls, women and marginalised groups.  As nationally owned and locally operated health service providers, IPPF Member Associations (MAs) remain committed to their communities and the people within them. In this Case Study series, we share progress, learning and innovation that has occurred within MAs over the course of the pandemic. The case studies cover: telemedicine for abortion in the COVID-19 context, SGBV response in COVID-19, adapting sexuality education in COVID-19 through digitalisation, and leaving no one behind, especially marginalised populations. Take a look at the above Case Studies from Bulgaria, Estonia, Serbia and Ireland. 

COVID-19 and SRHR
Resource

| 09 July 2021

COVID-19 IPPF innovation and best practice

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on access to and enjoyment of sexual and reproductive health services and rights. While families, couples and individuals have faced intense pressure and hardship as a result of the pandemic, life-saving sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services and supplies, including sexual and gender-based violence services, have become scarce and/or inaccessible. Existing socioeconomic inequalities have been exacerbated, especially as they pertain to girls, women and marginalised groups.  As nationally owned and locally operated health service providers, IPPF Member Associations (MAs) remain committed to their communities and the people within them. In this Case Study series, we share progress, learning and innovation that has occurred within MAs over the course of the pandemic. The case studies cover: telemedicine for abortion in the COVID-19 context, SGBV response in COVID-19, adapting sexuality education in COVID-19 through digitalisation, and leaving no one behind, especially marginalised populations. Take a look at the above Case Studies from Bulgaria, Estonia, Serbia and Ireland. 

EU flag
Resource

| 10 May 2021

European Parliament report on the situation of sexual and reproductive health and rights in the EU

This European Parliament Report, authored by MEP Predrag Fred Matić, is the first report specifically dedicated to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) in almost 10 years. Whilst the European Parliament has repeatedly expressed concerns over the lack of full realisation of, and attacks against women’s rights, gender equality and SRHR in various reports, this report will give a high level of political importance to SRHR at EU level. It will send a strong signal to the European Commission, EU Member States, as well as all European citizens, that MEPs are fully committed to protect and promote SRHR in the EU. The report reaffirms SRHR as human rights, intrinsically linked with gender equality and combating gender-based violence; it highlights the remaining challenges in accessing the whole range of SRHR in the EU, challenges compounded by COVID-19 measures; and denounces the backsliding on women’s rights, gender equality and SRHR across Europe and globally. To learn more about why it's important read our briefing developed with the European Parliamentary Forum for Sexual & Reproductive Rights.

EU flag
Resource

| 10 May 2021

European Parliament report on the situation of sexual and reproductive health and rights in the EU

This European Parliament Report, authored by MEP Predrag Fred Matić, is the first report specifically dedicated to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) in almost 10 years. Whilst the European Parliament has repeatedly expressed concerns over the lack of full realisation of, and attacks against women’s rights, gender equality and SRHR in various reports, this report will give a high level of political importance to SRHR at EU level. It will send a strong signal to the European Commission, EU Member States, as well as all European citizens, that MEPs are fully committed to protect and promote SRHR in the EU. The report reaffirms SRHR as human rights, intrinsically linked with gender equality and combating gender-based violence; it highlights the remaining challenges in accessing the whole range of SRHR in the EU, challenges compounded by COVID-19 measures; and denounces the backsliding on women’s rights, gender equality and SRHR across Europe and globally. To learn more about why it's important read our briefing developed with the European Parliamentary Forum for Sexual & Reproductive Rights.

IPPF COVID-19 impact
Resource

| 25 May 2020

A Guide for Europe: Protecting the rights of women and girls in times of the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath

The COVID-19 pandemic is exacerbating gender inequalities and increasing levels of discrimination, insecurity and violence for women across Europe.   A Guide for Europe: Protecting the rights of women and girls in times of the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath provides governments with a roadmap for taking necessary measures to protect the rights of women and girls, who are disproportionately affected by the pandemic, especially those experiencing intersecting and persistent forms of discrimination. European decision-makers must seize this moment to address both the immediate and long-term impact of the pandemic by implementing policies and other steps to eliminate further injustices and inequalities. Any short-, medium- or long-term measures taken to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic must uphold and protect human rights. Civil society organizations are calling for a recovery period that will deliver a shared vision of the future of Europe which is based on a just, feminist, sustainable, democratic and inclusive society. States must refrain from exploiting the pandemic to consolidate authoritarian power, to weaken democracy and the rule of law, or to trample on human rights. States must ensure that their responses include a gender-sensitive and intersectional approach in order to guarantee the rights of all women and girls to live free of discrimination and violence, and to access the essential sexual and reproductive health services they need. This briefing was drafted together with Amnesty International and Women's Link Worldwide.

IPPF COVID-19 impact
Resource

| 25 May 2020

A Guide for Europe: Protecting the rights of women and girls in times of the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath

The COVID-19 pandemic is exacerbating gender inequalities and increasing levels of discrimination, insecurity and violence for women across Europe.   A Guide for Europe: Protecting the rights of women and girls in times of the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath provides governments with a roadmap for taking necessary measures to protect the rights of women and girls, who are disproportionately affected by the pandemic, especially those experiencing intersecting and persistent forms of discrimination. European decision-makers must seize this moment to address both the immediate and long-term impact of the pandemic by implementing policies and other steps to eliminate further injustices and inequalities. Any short-, medium- or long-term measures taken to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic must uphold and protect human rights. Civil society organizations are calling for a recovery period that will deliver a shared vision of the future of Europe which is based on a just, feminist, sustainable, democratic and inclusive society. States must refrain from exploiting the pandemic to consolidate authoritarian power, to weaken democracy and the rule of law, or to trample on human rights. States must ensure that their responses include a gender-sensitive and intersectional approach in order to guarantee the rights of all women and girls to live free of discrimination and violence, and to access the essential sexual and reproductive health services they need. This briefing was drafted together with Amnesty International and Women's Link Worldwide.

COVID-19 and SRHR
Resource

| 13 May 2020

How to address the impact of COVID-19 on women, girls and vulnerable groups and their sexual and reproductive safety

The COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences are having a significant impact on people’s lives. The crisis risks exacerbating already existing inequalities for women, girls, underserved and vulnerable groups. It is notably endangering their sexual and reproductive health and safety. The EU and its Member States must tackle these renewed threats to women’s human rights, sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), gender equality as well as increased risks of domestic and sexual and gender-based violence, in their domestic and global response to the COVID-19 crisis. Read our asks towards the EU and Member States on how to safeguard reproductive freedom in their responses to COVID-19. EU leaders have committed to placing solidarity, resilience and sustainability at the heart of their response to the pandemic. To achieve this, they must protect the health and safety of those at greatest risk. This is our letter to them. 

COVID-19 and SRHR
Resource

| 13 May 2020

How to address the impact of COVID-19 on women, girls and vulnerable groups and their sexual and reproductive safety

The COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences are having a significant impact on people’s lives. The crisis risks exacerbating already existing inequalities for women, girls, underserved and vulnerable groups. It is notably endangering their sexual and reproductive health and safety. The EU and its Member States must tackle these renewed threats to women’s human rights, sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), gender equality as well as increased risks of domestic and sexual and gender-based violence, in their domestic and global response to the COVID-19 crisis. Read our asks towards the EU and Member States on how to safeguard reproductive freedom in their responses to COVID-19. EU leaders have committed to placing solidarity, resilience and sustainability at the heart of their response to the pandemic. To achieve this, they must protect the health and safety of those at greatest risk. This is our letter to them. 

See The Cost
Resource

| 24 June 2019

Make gender equality a reality: Sexual and reproductive rights are key aspects of health and well-being for all people

We can't achieve gender equality without having access to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR).  SRHR underpin the health and well-being of all Europeans, from access to contraceptives and abortion care, sexual health services, relationships and sexuality education, to being protected from violence and coercion, regardless of their gender or sexual orientation. However, access to SRHR varies greatly within and between EU Member States, which is particularly harmful to those in the most vulnerable situations. Furthermore, recent years have seen a rise of coercive movements both within and outside of the EU, with gender equality, women’s rights and reproductive freedom increasingly under attack. This paper lays down the steps to be taken to counter future such attempts that seek to restrict reproductive freedom and gender equality.

See The Cost
Resource

| 24 June 2019

Make gender equality a reality: Sexual and reproductive rights are key aspects of health and well-being for all people

We can't achieve gender equality without having access to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR).  SRHR underpin the health and well-being of all Europeans, from access to contraceptives and abortion care, sexual health services, relationships and sexuality education, to being protected from violence and coercion, regardless of their gender or sexual orientation. However, access to SRHR varies greatly within and between EU Member States, which is particularly harmful to those in the most vulnerable situations. Furthermore, recent years have seen a rise of coercive movements both within and outside of the EU, with gender equality, women’s rights and reproductive freedom increasingly under attack. This paper lays down the steps to be taken to counter future such attempts that seek to restrict reproductive freedom and gender equality.